Friday, October 3, 2014

Present Simple Tense (႐ိုး႐ိုးပစၥဳပၸန္ကာလ) ႏွင့္ Present Continuous Tense (ပစၥဳပၸဳန္ဆက္လက္ကာလ) အသံုးျပဳပံု


My name's Alan. I work in an office, but I'm not sitting at my desk this week. I'm doing a Leadership Course for new managers.

At the moment we're building a bridge, because we need to cross a river. We're all working hard, but I think it's great. I certainly prefer this to the office.
I'm really enjoying it.

It's nine o'clock in the evening and Alan doesn't feel very happy now. He usually watches TV in the evening, but he isn't watching TV today. He's putting up a tent.

I don't think this. It's raining and I feel cold, wet, and hungry. Perhaps I don't want to be a manager after all.



  *Present Simple Tense (႐ိုး႐ိုးပစၥဳပၸန္ကာလ) ကို ----

 1. ပံုမွန္ လုပ္ေဆာင္ခ်က္မ်ားကိုေဖာ္ျပလိုေသာအခါ 

  •  He usually watches TV in the evening.


  2. အၿမဲတမ္း သို႔မဟုတ္ ေယဘုယ် ျဖစ္ပ်က္ေနေသာအေၾကာင္းအအရာကို ေဖာ္ျပလိုေသာအခါ

  • I work in an office. 
  • She goes to school. 


3. ေအာက္ပါ စကားလံုးမ်ားႏွင့္ တြဲသံုးေလ့႐ွိသည္။

  • usually, often, always, everyday, on Saturdays  
  • I always get up early morning.
  • I usually read any kinds of historical books.
  • Everyday she goes to school. 


 * Present Continuous Tense (ပစၥဳပၸဳန္ဆက္လက္ကာလ) ကို ------

  1. ယာယီျဖစ္ပ်က္ေနေသာအေၾကာင္းအရာ၊ အေျခအေနမ်ားကိုေဖာ္ျပလိုေသာအခါ 

  • He isn't wearing a suit today.
  • We're doing a leadership course this week. 


2. စကားေျပာေနေသာအခ်ိန္တြင္ ျဖစ္ပ်က္ေနေသာအခါ

  • She's talking on her mobile at the moment.
  • I'm not using the Internet now. 


3. အနာဂတ္ကာလ၌ arrangements ကိုေဖာ္ျပလိုေသအခါ 

  • We're meeting for dinner on Friday.
  • I'm working this weekend. 


4. ေအာက္ပါစကားလံုးတို႔ျဖင့္ တြဲသံုးေသာအခါ


  • now, at the moment, today, this week  

Now I'm reading a book by U San Tha Aung.
 They're going to Mrau-U for pilgrimage this week.




အထူးမွတ္ခ်က္။

 Describing States (Stative Verbs) ဟုေခၚေသာ
"need, want, think, believe, know, like, prefer, love"  ႀကိယာတို႔ႏွင့္ Present Continuous Tense ႏွင့္ တြဲသံုးေလ့မ႐ိွေပ။ I'm needing, I'm wanting စသည္ျဖင့္ မသံုးရဟုမွတ္ပါ။

 Exercise 1. 
Make sentences. Put the verbs into the correct tense.

1. He / usually / work/ indoors. This week/  he/ work/ outdoors.
2. At the moment/ I/ cook/  a meal. I/ normally/ not cook/ anything.
3. He/ usually/ not walk/ a lot. H/ walk/ 10 kilometers today.
4. It's 5 a.m./ Alan/ get up/ now. He/ normally/ get up/ at 7.30.
5. I/ usually/ wear/ a suit. This week/ I/ wear/ jeans.



 Exercise 2. 
 Put the verbs into the correct tense.

1. A I____(go) to the show now. We____(need) some bread.
B Oh, I _______(think) the shop _________(close) at four on Sundays.
2. A The Director _________(want) to talk to Katrin, but I ________(not know) where she is. 
B I ________(believe) she _______(have) lunch at the moment. She usually _____(go) for lunch at 1.30.
3. A I _______ (make) a cup of coffee now. _______(you/ want) one?
B  No, thanks, I _______(not like) coffee. I _______(prefer) tea.

================================================ 
____ Tom Hutchinson ေရးတဲ့ English for Life, Intermediate Student's Book စာအုပ္မွ ကူးယူေဖာ္ျပပါသည္။
 

Thursday, October 2, 2014

Coordinating Conjunction



And - ႏွင့္၊ ၍
As well as - သကဲ့သို႔၊ လည္းဘဲ
And …. to - သကဲ့သို႔၊ လဲဘဲ
And … also - သကဲ့သို႔၊ လဲဘဲ     
Not only…but also - သာမဟုတ္၊ လဲဘဲ
No less than - သကဲသို႔၊ လဲဘဲ
Both..and - ႏွင့္၊ ႏွစ္ခုစလံုး
Not only…but - သာမဟုတ္၊ လဲဘဲ
Either … or - ႏွစ္ခုမွ တစ္ခု
Neither …. nor - ႏွစ္ခုလံုးမဟုတ္
Or - သို႔မဟုတ္
Else - သို႔မဟုတ္
Nor - တစ္ခုမွ မဟုတ္
But - သို႔ရာတြင္၊ ဒါေပမယ့္
Yet - သို႔ရာတြင္၊ ဒါေပမယ့္
So - ဒါေၾကာင့္
For - အတြက္ေၾကာင့္၊ ေသာေၾကာင့္၊ အေၾကာင္းမူကား
And so - လည္းပဲ၊ အဲဒီလိုပဲ။
And … too - လည္းပဲ။ 
And …neither - ႏွစ္ခုလံုး မဟုတ္။
And …eighter -  ထိုနည္းအတူ၊ ႏွစ္ခုလံုး။

Active Voice to Passive Voice အတြက္ ႀကိဳတင္ သိထားသင့္ေသာ အခ်က္မ်ား


Adverb of Manner ပါေသာ (ly - ဆံုးေသာဝါက်ကို Active Voice မွ Passive Voice သို႔ေျပာင္းရာတြင္  Adverb of Manner  (ly - ဆံုးေသာ Adverb) ကို Passive Voice ဝါက်၌ မ်ားေသာအားျဖင့္ V3 ၏ေ႐ွ႕တြင္ထားေပးရသည္။  (Adverb အသံုးျပဳပံုကို Adverb အသံုးျပဳပံုက႑၌ ေဆာင္ပုဒ္ႏွင့္တကြ ေဖာ္ျပခဲ့ၿပီးၿပီ။ ျပန္လည္ၾကည့္႐ႈပါ။)

Ø  I study English happily. (A V)  >>> English is happily studied (by me). (P V)
Active Voice ဝါက်တို႔တြင္ Subject သည္  No one, No body, None တို႔ ျဖစ္ပါက Passive Voice ေျပာင္းေသာအခါ not ကိုေပးရသည္။ (Negative Sentence ေျပာင္းေပးရသည္။)

Ø  No one likes death. (A V )  >>> Death is not liked. ( P V)
Ø  No body knows when we will pass away. ( A V) >>> When we will pass away is not known. ( P V)
                                                                              >>> It is not known when we will pass away. (P V)
            
Active Voice ဝါက်တြင Subject သည္ They, We, People, Someone, Everyone, Somebody, Everybody တို႔ျဖစ္က  Passive Voice ေျပာင္းေသာအခါတြင by them, by us စသည္ျဖင့္ ျပန္မထည့့္ဘဲ ခ်န္ထားႏိုင္ေသာ္လည္း  Noun     ( a boy, Su Su, etc. ) ပုဒ္မ်ားျဖစ္က  by a boy, by Su Su စသည္ျဖင့္ ျပန္ထည့္ေပးရသည္။ ( I, You, He, She, It) တို႔ျဖစ္က Passive Voice ေျပာင္းရာတြင္ by me, by you စသည္ျဖင့္ ျပန္ထည့္လို႔ ရသလို ျပန္မထည့္ဘဲလည္း ထားႏိုင္သည္။

Ø  I play games with Mrat Thar Htun. (A V ) >>> Games are played with Mrat Thar Htun (by me). (P V)
Ø  Su Su is reading the books. ( A V )  >>> The books are read by Su Su. ( P V )

Object ႏွစ္ခုပါေသာ (Direct Object & Indirect Object ) Active Voice ဝါက်ကို Passive Voice သို႔ေျပာင္းေသာအခါ သက္႐ွိျဖစ္ေသာအခါ Indirect Object ကို Subject ေနရာ (ေ႐ွ႕ဆံုး) သို႔ ေျပာင္းေပးပါက ပိုေကာင္းသည္။

A.     I give  San Htwe    a lovely present. ( A V)
              ID. O            D.O
B.     I give a lovely present to San Htwe.  (A V)
                    D.O                 ID. O
      A.  San Htwe is given a lovely present by me. ( P V)    or
             A lovely present is given to San Htwe by me. ( P V)
                   B.  A lovely present is given to San Htwe by me. ( P V) or
                          San Htwe is given a lovely present by me. ( P V )   

Three Kinds of Subject (အေၾကာင္းအရာ - ၃ မ်ဳိး) ႏွင့္ Kinds of Object (ကံပုဒ္အမ်ဳိးအစား)


Three Kinds of Subject (အေၾကာင္းအရာ - ၃ မ်ဳိး)
1.      ျပဳလုပ္တဲ့ Subject
Ø  I write the letter. ငါဟာ စာေရးတယ္။


2.      ျပဳလည္းမျပဳလုပ္ ခံလည္းမခံရတဲ့ Subject (႐ွိေၾကာင္း၊ ျဖစ္ေၾကာင္းကိုေဖာ္ျပ)
Ø  The letter is on the table. စာဟာ စားပြဲေပၚတြင္႐ွိသည္။
3.      ခံရတဲ့ Subject (Passive Voice)
Ø  The Letter is written (by me). စာဟာ ငါ့ရဲ့ေရးျခင္းကိုခံရတယ္။


Kinds of Object (ကံပုဒ္အမ်ဳိးအစား)


(a)   Object of the Verb - ႀကိယာ၏ကံပုဒ္
Ø  I write a letter. ငါစာတစ္ေစာင္ကိုေရးတယ္။
(b)   Object of Preposition - ဝိဘတ္၏ကံပုဒ္
Ø  Don’t you sit on the chair? မင္းကုလားထိုင္ေပၚမွာ မထိုင္ဘူးလား။
(c)     Direct Object - တိုက္႐ိုက္ကံပုဒ္
Ø  San Hwe gave me a book. စန္းေထြးက ငါ့ကို စာအုပ္တစ္အုပ္ေပးတယ္။
Ø  The carpenter built me a house. လက္သမားက အိမ္တစ္ေဆာင္ကို ငါ့အတြက္ ေဆာက္ေပးခဲ့တယ္။
(d)   Indirect Object - တစ္ဆင့္ခံကံပုဒ္
Ø  San Htwe gave a book to me. စန္းေထြးက စာအုပ္တစ္အုပ္ကို ငါ့အတြက္ေပးတယ္။
Ø  The carpenter built a house for me. လက္သမားက အိမ္တစ္ေဆာင္ကို ငါ့အတြက္ ေဆာက္ေပးခဲ့တယ္။

Note:                Personal Noun or Pronoun တို႔ကို Indirect Object (ID.O) ဟုေခၚၿပီး၊ Impersonal Pronoun or Noun တို႔ကို Direct Object (D.O) ဟုေခၚသည္။ (ID.O) ကို Transitive Verb အနားမွာကပ္ထားၿပီး၊  (D.O) ကို ေနာက္ဆံုးမွာထား၍ ေရးသားေသာအခါ  To/For တို႔ကိုထည့္စရာမလို။ (D.O) ကို Transitive Verb အနားမွာကပ္ထားၿပီး၊  (ID.O) ကို ေနာက္ဆံုးမွာထား၍ ေရးသားလွ်င္ကား To/For ကို (ID.O) ၾကားႏွင့္ (D.O) ၾကားတြင္ထည့္ေပးရသည္။

S + V + D.O + for/to + ID.O                              S + V + ID.O + D.O
The carpenter built a house for me.                       The carpenter built me a house.
San Htwe gave a book to me.                    San Hwe gave me a book.

Wednesday, October 1, 2014

Common Short Forms


Common Short Forms
Aren’t
= are not/ am not
Can’t
= can not
Couldn’t
= could not
Daren’t
= dare not
Didn’t
= did not
Doesn’t
= does not
Don’t
= do not
Hadn’t
= had not
Hasn’t
= has not
Haven’t
= have not
He’d
= he had/ would
He’ll
= he will
He’s
= he is/ has
Here’s
= here is
How’s
= how is/ has
I’d
= I had/ would
I’ll
= I will/ shall
I’m
= I am
I’ve
= I have
Isn’t
= is not
It’ll
= it will
It’s
= it is/ has
Let’s
= let us
Mightn’t
= might not
Musn’t
= must not
Needn’t
= need not
Oughtn’t
= ought not
Shan’t
= shall not
She’d
= she had/ would
She’ll
= she will
She’s
= she is/ has
Shouldn’t
= should not
That’s
= that is/ has
There’d
= there had/ would
There’ll
= there will
There’s
= there is/ has
They’d
= they had/ would
They’ll
= they will
They’re
= they are
They’ve
= they have
Wasn’t
= was not
We’d
= we had/ would
We’ll
= we will/ shall
We’re
= we are/ were
We’ve
= we have
Weren’t
= were not
What’ll
= what will
What’s
= what is/ has
When’s
= when is / has
Where’s
= where is/ has
Who’d
= who would/ had
Who’ll
= who will
Who’s
= who is/ has
Won’t
= will not
Wouldn’t
= would not
You’d
You had/ would
You’ll
You will
You’re
= you are/ were
You’ve
= you have



ေစဆံုးေသာ Verbs (ႀကိယာမ်ား)


ေစဆံုးေသာ Verbs (ႀကိယာမ်ား)

Wound - ဒဏ္ရာရာရေစသည္
Injure - ဒဏ္ရာရေစသည္ (မေတာ္တဆ)
Interest - စိတ္ဝင္စားေစသည္
Delight - ဝမ္းေျမာက္ဝမ္းသာ ျဖစ္ေစသည္
Tire - ေမာပန္းေစသည္
Frighten - ေၾကာက္လန္႔ေစသည္
Astonish - အံ့ၾသေစသည္
Annoy - စိတ္အေႏွာင့အယွက္ျဖစ္ေစသည္
Disappoint - စိတ္မေက်မနပ္ျဖစ္ေစသည္
Please - ဝမ္းသာအားရျဖစေစသည္
Satisfy - စိတ္ေက်နပ္ေစသည္
Excite - စိတ္လႈပ္႐ွားေစသည္

Surprise - အံ့ၾသသင့္ေစသည္
Shock - အထိတ္တလန္႔ျဖစ္ေစသည္
Rid - ကင္းလြတ္ေစသည္
Hurt - ထိခိုက္နာက်င္ေစသည္
Console - ႏွစ္သိမ့္ေစသည္
Recover - ျပန္၍ရယူေစသည္
Stop - ရပ္တန္႔ေစသည္
Spend - အခ်ိန္ကုန္လြန္ေစသည္
Affect - ထိခိုက္ပ်က္ျပားေစသည္
Ashame - အ႐ွက္ရေစသည္
Cause - ျဖစ္ေစသည္

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